Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience

What Is Biopsychology?

What Is the Relation between Biopsychology and the Other Disciplines of Neuroscience?

What Types of Research Characterize the Biopsychological Approach?
  • Human and Nonhuman Subjects
  • Experiments and Nonexperiments
  • Pure and Applied Research
What Are the Divisions of Biopsychology?
  • Physiological Psychology
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Psychophysiology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Comparative Psychology

Converging Operations: How Do Biopsychologists Work Together?

Scientific Inference: How Do Biopsychologists Study the Unobservable Workings of the Brain?

What Is Bad Science, and How Do You Spot It?
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 2: Evolution, Genetics, and Experience: Asking the Right Questions about the Biology of Behavior

Thinking about the Biology of Behavior: From Dichotomies to Relations and Interactions
  • Is It Physiological, or Is It Psychological?
  • Is It Inherited, or Is It Learned?
  • Problems with Thinking about the Biology of Behavior in Terms of Traditional Dichotomies
Human Evolution
  • Evolution and Behavior
  • Course of Human Evolution
  • Thinking about Human Evolution
  • Evolution of the Human Brain
  • Conclusion
Fundamental Genetics
  • Mendelian Genetics
  • Chromosomes, Reproduction, and Linkage
  • Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits
  • Chromosome Structure and Replication
  • The Genetic Code and Gene Expression
  • Human Genome Project
  • Mitochondrial DNA
Behavioral Development: The Interaction of Genetic Factors and Experience
  • Selective Breeding of "Maze-Bright" and "Maze-Dull" Rats
  • Phenylketonuria: A Single-Gene Metabolic Disorder
  • Development of Birdsong
The Genetics of Human Psychological Differences
  • Development of the Individual versus Development of
  • Differences among Individuals
  • Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 3: The Anatomy of the Nervous System

General Layout of the Nervous System
  • Divisions of the Nervous System
  • Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
Cells of the Nervous System
  • Anatomy of Neurons 56
  • Supportive Cells of the Nervous System: Glial Cells and Satellite Cells
Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
  • Neuroanatomical Techniques
  • Directions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

Spinal Cord

The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

Major Structures of the Brain
  • Myelencephalon
  • Metencephalon
  • Mesencephalon
  • Diencephalon
  • Telencephalon
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 4: Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission

The Neuron's Resting Membrane Potential
  • Recording the Membrane Potential
  • Resting Membrane Potential
  • The Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential

Generation and Conduction of Postsynaptic Potentials

Integration of Postsynaptic
  • Potentials and Generation of Action Potentials
Conduction of Action Potentials
  • Ionic Basis of Action Potentials
  • Refractory Periods
  • Conduction of Action Potentials
  • Conduction in Myelinated Axons
  • The Velocity of Axonal Conduction
  • Conduction in Neurons without Axons
Synaptic Transmission: Chemical Transmission of Signals from One Neuron to Another
  • Structure of Synapses
  • Synthesis, Packaging, and Transport of Neurotransmitter Molecules
  • Release of Neurotransmitter Molecules
  • The Activation of Receptors by Neurotransmitter Molecules
  • Reuptake, Enzymatic Degradation, and Recycling
The Neurotransmitters
  • Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
  • Monoamine Neurotransmitters
  • Soluble-Gas Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine
  • Neuropeptides
Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission
  • How Drugs Influence Synaptic Transmission
  • Psychoactive Drugs: Four Examples
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 5: What Biopsychologists Do: The Research Methods of Biopsychology

PART 1: Methods of Studying the Nervous System

Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain
  • Contrast X-Rays
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Positron Emission Tomography
  • Functional MRI
Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity
  • Scalp Electroencephalography
  • Muscle Tension
  • Eye Movement
  • Skin Conductance
  • Cardiovascular Activity
Invasive Physiological
  • Research Methods
  • Stereotaxic Surgery
  • Lesion Methods
  • Electrical Stimulation
  • Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods
  • Research Methods
  • Routes of Drug Administration
  • Selective Chemical Lesions
  • Measuring Chemical Activity of the Brain
  • Locating Neurotransmitters and Receptors in the Brain
Genetic Engineering
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Gene Replacement Techniques

PART 2: The Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology

Neuropsychological Testing
  • Modern Approach to Neuropsychological Testing
  • Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery
  • Tests of Specific Neuropsychological Function

Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

  • Paradigms for Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors
  • Traditional Conditioning Paradigms Seminatural Animal
  • Learning Paradigms
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 6: Human Brain Damage and Animal Models

Causes of Brain Damage
  • Brain Tumors
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders
  • Closed-Head Injuries
  • Infections of the Brain
  • Neurotoxins
  • Genetic Factors
  • Programmed Cell Death
Neuropsychological Diseases
  • Epilepsy
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Huntington's Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Alzheimer's Disease
Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases
  • Kindling Model of Epilepsy
  • Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
  • MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 7: The Visual System: From Eye to Cortex

Light Enters the Eye and Reaches the Retina

The Retina and Translation of Light into Neural Signals
  • Cone and Rod Vision
  • Eye Movement
  • Visual Transduction: The Conversion of Light to Neural Signals
From Retina to Primary Visual Cortex
  • Retinotopic Organization
  • The M and P Pathways
Seeing Edges
  • Lateral Inhibition and Contrast Enhancement
  • Receptive Fields of Visual Neurons
  • Receptive Fields: Neurons of the Retina-Geniculate-Striate Pathway
  • Receptive Fields: Simple Cortical Cells
  • Receptive Fields: Complex Cortical Cells
  • Columnar Organization of Primary Visual Cortex
  • Spatial-Frequency Theory
Seeing Color
  • Component and Opponent Processing
  • Color Constancy and the Retinex Theory
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 8: Mechanisms of Perception, Conscious Awareness, and Attention

Principles of Sensory System Organization
  • Hierarchical Organization
  • Functional Segregation
  • Parallel Processing
  • The Current Model of Sensory System Organization
Cortical Mechanisms of Vision
  • Scotomas: Completion
  • Scotomas: Blindsight
  • Perception of Subjective Contours
  • Functional Areas of Secondary and Association Visual Cortex
  • Dorsal and Ventral Streams
  • Prosopagnosia
  • Interim Conclusion
  • The Ear
  • From the Ear to the Primary Auditory Cortex
  • Primary Auditory Cortex
  • Sound Localization
  • Effects of Auditory Cortex Damage
Somatosensation: Touch and Pain
  • Cutaneous Receptors
  • Dermatomes
  • The Two Major Ascending Somatosensory Pathways
  • Cortical Areas of Somatosensation
  • Effects of Damage to the Primary Somatosensory Cortex
  • Somatosensory Agnosias
  • The Paradoxes of Pain
  • Phantom Limbs
The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
  • Olfactory System
  • Gustatory System
  • Brain Damage and the Chemical Senses
Selective Attention
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 9: The Sensorimotor System

Three Principles of Sensorimotor Function
  • The Sensorimotor System Is Hierarchically Organized
  • Motor Output Is Guided by Sensory Input
  • Learning Changes the Nature and Locus of Sensorimotor Control
  • A General Model of Sensorimotor System Function
Sensorimotor Association Cortex
  • Posterior Parietal Association Cortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal
  • Association Cortex

Secondary Motor Cortex

Primary Motor Cortex

Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
  • Cerebellum
  • Basal Ganglia
Descending Motor Pathways
  • Dorsolateral Corticospinal Tract and Dorsolateral Corticorubrospinal Tract
  • Ventromedial Corticospinal Tract and Ventromedial Cortico- Brainstem-Spinal Tract
  • The Two Dorsolateral Motor Pathways and the Two Ventromedial Motor Pathways Compared
Sensorimotor Spinal Circuits
  • Muscles
  • Receptor Organs of Tendons and Muscles
  • Stretch Reflex
  • Withdrawal Reflex
  • Reciprocal Innervation
  • Recurrent Collateral Inhibition
  • Walking: A Complex Sensorimotor Reflex
Central Sensorimotor Programs
  • Central Motor Programs Can Develop without Practice
  • Practice Creates Central Motor Programs
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 10: The Biopsychology of Eating and Drinking

PART 1: Hunger, Eating, and Body Weight Regulation

Digestion and Energy Flow

Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points Versus Positive Incentives
  • Set-Point Assumption
  • Glucostatic and Lipostatic Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating
  • Problems with Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating
  • Positive-Incentive Theory
Factors That Determine
  • What, When, and How Much We Eat
  • Factors That Determine What We Eat
  • Factors That Influence When We Eat
  • Factors That Influence How Much We Eat
Physiological Research on
  • Hunger and Satiety
  • Role of Blood Glucose Levels in Hunger and Satiety
  • Myth of Hypothalamic Hunger and Satiety Centers
  • Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Satiety
  • Hunger and Satiety Peptides
Body Weight Regulation:
  • Set Points versus Settling Points
  • Set-Point Assumptions about Body Weight and Eating
  • Set Points and Settling Points in Weight Control
PART 2: Thirst, Drinking, and Body Fluid Regulation Regulation of the Body's Fluid Resources
  • Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid Compartments
  • The Kidneys: Regulation of Water and Sodium Levels
Deprivation-Induced Drinking: Cellular Dehydration and Hypovolemia
  • Cellular Dehydration and Thirst
  • Hypovolemia and Thirst
  • Effects of Antidiuretic Hormone
  • Angiotensin II and Drinking
  • Drinking Produced by Naturally Occurring Water Deficits
Spontaneous Drinking: Drinking in the Absence of Water Deficits
  • Flavor
  • Food
  • Learning
Drinking and Satiety
  • Sham Drinking
  • Drinking and Sensory-Specific Satiety

PART 3: Disorders of Consumption

Human Obesity
  • Mutant Obese Mice
  • Leptin: A Negative Feedback Signal from Fat
  • Insulin: Another Adiposity Feedback Signal
  • Leptin in the Treatment of Human Obesity
  • 10.11 Anorexia Nervosa
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 11: Hormones and Sex

The Men-Are-Men and Women-Are-Women Attitude

The Neuroendocrine System
  • Glands
  • Hormones
  • Gonads
  • Sex Steroids
  • Hormones of the Pituitary
  • Female Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Cyclic, Male Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Steady
  • Neural Control of the Pituitary
  • Control of the Anterior and Posterior Pituitary by the Hypothalamus
  • Discovery of Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones
  • Feedback in the Neuroendocrine System
  • Pulsatile Hormone Release
  • A Summary Model of Gonadal Endocrine Regulation
Hormones and Sexual Development
  • Fetal Hormones and the Development of Reproductive Organs
  • Development of Sex Differences in the Brain 294 Perinatal Hormones and
  • Behavioral Development
  • Puberty: Hormones and the Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Three Cases of Exceptional Human Sexual Development
Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults
  • Male Reproduction-Related Behavior and Testosterone
  • Female Reproduction-Related Behavior and Gonadal Hormones Anabolic Steroid Abuse
The Hypothalamus and Sexual Behavior
  • Structural Differences between the Male Hypothalamus and the Female Hypothalamus
  • The Hypothalamus and Male Sexual Behavior
  • The Hypothalamus and Female Sexual Behavior
Sexual Orientation, Hormones, and the Brain
  • Sexual Orientation, Genes, and Hormones
  • Sexual Orientation and Early Hormones
  • What Triggers the Development of Sexual Attraction?
  • Is There a Difference in the Brains of Homosexuals and Heterosexuals?
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 12: Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms

The Physiological and Behavioral Correlates of Sleep
  • The Three Standard Psychophysiological Measures of Sleep
  • Four Stages of Sleep EEG
  • 12.2 REM Sleep and Dreaming
  • Testing Common Beliefs about Dreaming
  • The Interpretation of Dreams
  • Lucid Dreams
Why Do We Sleep?
  • Recuperation and Circadian Theories
Circadian Sleep Cycles
  • Free-Running Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycles
  • Jet Lag and Shift Work
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
  • Two Classic Sleep-Deprivation Studies
  • Experimental Studies of Sleep Deprivation in Humans
  • Sleep-Deprivation Studies in
  • Laboratory Animals
  • REM-Sleep Deprivation
  • Interpreting the Effects of Sleep Deprivation: A Special Recuperative Function for Slow-Wave Sleep
  • Increase in Sleep Efficiency

Recuperation and Circadian Theories of Sleep Combined

Neural Mechanisms of Sleep
  • Reticular Activating System Theory of Sleep
  • Three Important Discoveries about the Neural Basis of Sleep
  • Brain Areas That Have Been Implicated in Controlling Sleep and Dreaming
The Circadian Clock: Neural and Molecular Mechanisms
  • Location of the Circadian Clock in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei
  • Genetics of Circadian Rhythms
  • Mechanisms of Entrainment
Drugs That Affect Sleep
  • Hypnotic Drugs
  • Antihypnotic Drugs
  • Melatonin
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Hypersomnia
  • REM-Sleep-Related Disorders
The Effects of Long-Term
  • Sleep Reduction
  • Long-Term Sleep Reduction: Nightly Sleep
  • Long-Term Sleep Reduction by Napping
  • Long-Term Sleep Reduction:
  • A Personal Case Study
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 13: Drug Addiction and Reward Circuits in the Brain

Basic Principles of Drug Action
  • Drug Administration and Absorption
  • Penetration of the Central Nervous System by Drugs
  • Mechanisms of Drug Action
  • Drug Metabolism and Elimination
  • Drug Tolerance
  • Drug Withdrawal Effects and
  • Physical Dependence
  • Addiction: What Is It?
Role of Learning in Drug Tolerance and Drug Withdrawal Effects
  • Contingent Drug Tolerance
  • Conditioned Drug Tolerance
  • Conditioned Withdrawal Effects
  • Thinking about Drug Conditioning
Five Commonly Abused Drugs
  • Tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Marijuana
  • Cocaine and Other Stimulants
  • The Opiates: Heroin and Morphine
  • Comparison of the Hazards of Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Heroin
  • The Drug Dilemmas: Striking the Right Balance
Biopsychological Theories of Addiction
  • Physical-Dependence Theories of Addiction
  • Positive-Incentive Theories of Addiction
Reward Circuits in the Brain
  • Intracranial Self-Stimulation: Fundamental Characteristics
  • Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System and Intracranial Self-Stimulation
  • The Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System and Natural Motivated Behaviors
Neural Mechanisms of Addiction
  • Evidence of the Involvement of the Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System in Drug Addiction
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 14: Memory and Amnesia

Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
  • Early Theories of Memory Storage
  • Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
  • H. M.'s Postsurgery Memory Deficits
  • Formal Assessment of H. M.'s Anterograde Amnesia
  • Scientific Contributions of H. M.'s Case
  • Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia
  • R. B.: Effects of Selective Hippocampal Damage
Amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome
  • Medial Diencephalic Damage and Korsakoff Amnesia
  • Medial Diencephalic Amnesia: The Case of N. A.

Memory Deficits Associated with Prefrontal Cortex Damage

Amnesia of Alzheimer's Disease

Amnesia after Concussion
  • Electroconvulsive Shock and Gradients of Retrograde Amnesia
Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
  • Monkey Model of Object-Recognition Amnesia: The Nonrecurring-Items Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test
  • Early Monkey Studies of Medial Temporal Lobe Damage and Object-Recognition Amnesia
  • Rat Model of Object-Recognition Amnesia: The Nonrecurring-Items Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test
  • Neuroanatomical Basis of the Object-Recognition Deficits Resulting from Medial Temporal Lobectomy
  • Ischemia-Produced Brain Damage and Object-Recognition Deficits
Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location
  • Tests of Spatial Memory in Rats Place Cells
  • Comparative Studies of the Hippocampus and Spatial Memory
  • Theories of Hippocampal Function
Memory Structures of the Brain: A Summary
  • Rhinal Cortex
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
  • Inferotemporal Cortex
  • Cerebellum and Striatum
  • Prefrontal Cortex
  • Mediodorsal Nucleus
  • Basal Forebrain
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 15: Neuroplasticity: Development, Learning, and Recovery from Brain Damage

Phases of Neural Development
  • Induction of the Neural Plate
  • Neural Proliferation
  • Migration and Aggregation
  • Axon Growth and Synapse Formation
  • Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement
Effects of Experience on Neural Development
  • Early Studies of Experience and Neural Development
  • Competitive Nature of Experience and Neural Development
  • Effects of Experience on the Development of Topographic Sensory Cortex Maps
  • Mechanisms of Experiential Effects on Neural Development
Neural Bases of Learning and Memory in Simple Systems
  • Learning in the Aplysia Gill-Withdrawal Reflex Circuit
  • Long-Term Potentiation in Mammaliam Hippocampus
Neural Degeneration, Regeneration, and Reorganization
  • Neural Degeneration
  • Neural Regeneration
  • Neural Reorganization
Therapeutic Implications of Neuroplasticity
  • Promotion of Recovery from Brain Damage by Rehabilitative Training
  • Promotion of Recovery from Brain Damage by Genetic Engineering
  • Promotion of Recovery from Brain Damage by Neurotransplantation
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 16: Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain

Lateralization of Function: Methods and Basic Findings
  • Aphasia, Apraxia, and Left-Hemisphere Damage
  • Tests of Language Lateralization
  • Speech Laterality and Handedness
  • Sex Differences in Brain Lateralization
The Split Brain
  • Groundbreaking Experiment of Myers and Sperry
  • Commissurotomy in Human Epileptics
  • Evidence That the Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients Function Independently
  • Cross-Cuing
  • Learning Two Things at Once
  • The Z Lens
Differences between the Left and Right Hemispheres
  • Some Examples of Lateralization of Function
  • Statistical versus All-or-None Hemispheric Differences
  • Neuroanatomical Asymmetries
  • Theories of Cerebral Asymmetry
  • Evolution of Cerebral Lateralization
Cortical Localization of Language: The Wernicke-Geschwind Model
  • Historic Antecedents of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
  • Wernicke-Geschwind Model
Cortical Localization of Language: Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
  • Effects of Damage to Various Areas of Cortex on Language-Related Abilities
  • Electrical Stimulation of the Cortex and Localization of Language
  • Cortical Localization of Language: Evidence from Dyslexia
  • Interim Conclusion
Cortical Localization of Language: Functional Brain-Imaging Research
  • A PET Study of Hearing or Seeing Single Words
  • An fMRI Study of Reading
  • Summary of the Findings of Functional Brain-Imaging Studies of Language
  • Interim Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading

Chapter 17: Biopsychology of Stress and Illness

Biopsychology of Emotion
  • Early Progress in the Biopsychological Study of Emotion
  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Emotions and Facial Expression Effects of Cortical Damage on Human Emotion
Fear, Defense, and Aggression
  • Types of Aggressive and Defensive Behaviors
  • Aggression and Testosterone
  • Neural Mechanisms of Conditioned Fear
  • Amygdalectomy and Human Fear
Stress and Psychosomatic Disorders
  • The Stress Response
  • Stress and Gastric Ulcers Psychoneuroimmunology: Stress and Infections
  • Effects of Stress on the Hippocampus
  • Causal Factors in Schizophrenia
  • Discovery of the First Antischizophrenic Drugs
  • Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia Current Research on the Neural Basis of Schizophrenia
Affective Disorders: Depression and Mania
  • Causal Factors in Affective Disorders
  • Discovery of Antidepressant Drugs
  • Neural Mechanisms of Depression
Anxiety Disorders
  • Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
  • Animal Models of Anxiety
  • Neural Bases of Anxiety Disorders
  • Conclusion
  • Food for Thought
  • Key Terms
  • Additional Reading
  • Epilogue
  • Appendices
  • References
  • Credits
  • Indexes
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